The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a federation of seven emirates, each with its own legal system and court system. However, there is also a federal court system that applies to cases involving federal law or disputes between the emirates.
At the lowest level of the court system in the UAE are the local courts, which are found in each emirate. These courts handle small claims, civil disputes, and criminal cases that are not serious enough to be heard by higher courts. They also handle family law cases, such as marriage, divorce, and child custody disputes.
Above the local courts are the emirate's courts of first instance. These courts hear more serious criminal cases and civil disputes that are too complex to be handled by the local courts. They also act as an appellate court for cases heard by the local courts.
The highest court in each emirate is the court of appeal. These courts hear appeals from the courts of first instance and have the power to overturn or affirm their decisions.
The federal court system in the UAE includes the Federal Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the country. This court hears appeals from the emirate courts of appeal and has the final word on issues of federal law. It also has the power to interpret the Constitution and federal laws and regulations.
There is also a Court of Cassation, which is responsible for hearing appeals from the lower federal courts and acts as a appellate court for the Emirates courts of Appeal.
The UAE also has specialized courts that deal with specific areas of law. For example, the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC) has its own court system that deals with disputes arising within the DIFC. This court system operates independently of the UAE's federal court system and has its own set of laws and regulations.
The UAE has put a lot of effort into its legal system over the years, and it is now considered one of the most advanced in the Middle East. It offers litigants a fair and efficient system with several levels of appeal, which ensures that there are plenty of opportunities for redress.
Overall, the court system of UAE offers different level of court system to handle different type of cases with justice, and is designed to serve the needs of its citizens and expats who live and work in the country.